Cell Volume Regulation

Lang (2007)

  • "Loss or gain of even a small percentage of cellular water thus exerts a profound effect on protein function and cellular performance."
  • Water channels [3][4]
  • Osmotic pressure gradients [1]
  • "In mammalian cells, hydrostatic gradients across cell membranes remain negligibly low."
  • "To avoid swelling or shrinkage, cells have to accomplish osmotic equilibrium across the cell membrane."
  • "The most rapid and efficient cell volume regulatory mechanisms are ion transporters in the cell membrane [7]."
  • "Even in an siotonic environment, the intracellular concentration of inorganic ions needs to be lower than the extracellular ion ceoncentration to counterbalance the cellular accululation of organic substances [1][10]."
  • "The energy requirements for maintaining ionic gradients and cell volume constancy depend on the rate of Na+ entry [1]."

RCVD

  • "Regulatory cell volume decrease requires release of cellular ions, by activation of K+ channels and/or anion channels in most cells [15-18]."
  • "Cell volume regulatory ion channels include the K+ channels Kv1.3, Kv1.5, and KCNE1/KCNQ1 and the anion channels ClC-2 and ClC-3 [7]."
  • "Swelling leads to activation of nonspecific cation channels in some cells [7]."