Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) Equation

  • R (Gas Constant) = 8.314472 (J/K·mol)
  • T (Absolute Temperature) = t °C + 273.15 (°K)
  • F (Faraday's Constant) = 9.6485309×104 (C/mol)
Typical Mammalian Cell
  Outside (mM) Inside (mM) E (mV)(37 °C) E (mV)(32 °C)
K+ 5 140 -89.06 -87.6
Na+ 145 5 ~ 15 90 ~ 60.63 88.5 ~ 59.7
Cl- 110 4 -88.58 -87.1
Experimental Solutions
  Outside (mM) Inside (mM) E (mV)(32 °C)
K+ 3 140 -101.1
Na+ 151.25 4 95.5
Cl- 134 24 -45.2

Temperature (°C)
  K+ Na Cl-

Equalibrium Potential = (mV)

P
Outside Concentration (mM)
Inside Concentration (mM)